Study on Operations and maintenance of public transport system
Public Private Partnerships (PPP) in city bus services in India have been prevalent for a number of years, but they have gained steam over the past two decades. Either a Net Cost Contract (NCC) or a Gross Cost Contract (GCC) or their hybrids are utilised in public-private partnerships. The public sector is responsible for bus planning and management, while the private sector is in charge of bus operations and maintenance. However, the agencies participating in O&M are primarily concerned with cost reduction and performance enhancement of services.